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Comments like these lead me to the conclusion that many Mennonites who protested the war saw themselves as doves of a different feather—in, but not of, the antiwar movement. But I was too quick to take the students at their own word. More than a decade later, much more fully immersed in the history of the antiwar movement, I see things differently (for more on my work on the 1960s—unrelated to Mennonite history—see ).

Considering the antiwar movement in all its diversity, Mennonite students appear more typical than not of peace activists. In the words of historian Charles DeBenedetti, the antiwar movement was “local and ephemeral.” 4 Although images of student radicalism and confrontation dominated news coverage, recent scholarship has stressed the diversity of antiwar activists. Whether they acted as mothers, religious figures, or members of ethnic groups, activists nationwide often filtered their antiwar activism through local concerns or specific group identities. This is precisely what gave the movement its broad power—and its struggles with strategy and unity. 5 The movement was filled with doves of different feathers. Mennonite activists were not so exceptional in this. Furthermore, some activists’ suspicions about the broader movement reflect key ways in which Mennonites were not unique from their non-Mennonite neighbors.

Sociologist Todd Gitlin has demonstrated that media coverage of antiwar protest was deeply problematic. Reporters depicted the movement as potentially subversive or, paradoxically, ineffective and trivial. Journalists privileged stories with conflict and violence, often focusing on action above ideas and issues. Gitlin argues this encouraged activists to plan ever more dramatic protests and meant that protests that did not involve confrontation failed to reach the eyes of many Americans. 6 Gitlin does not blame media coverage for the antiwar movement’s image problems. The movement, he argues, made several of its own mistakes. However, he illustrates some of the very real limitations set up by this coverage. 7

The Mennonite student activists who were wary of the larger movement show how much impact media could have, even on those critical of the war. These students defined themselves apart from the movement, perhaps because they did not recognize their own preferred methods of nonviolence and moderation as truly belonging to the movement. And yet, Mennonite students were hardly alone in their preference for a firmly nonviolent movement over the highly visible, but not universally embraced, turn to confrontation that came at the end of the 1960s. 8

Mennonites were also not unique in a desire to relate antiwar activism to one’s home community. Historian Lorena Oropeza has described the way Mexican-Americans’ antiwar views became intertwined with the growing Chicano movement. Chicano antiwar leaders valued having their own organizations, separate from the rest of the antiwar movement. They worked with the broader movement but they also wanted space where the concerns and voices of their own community could flourish. 9 Likewise, African Americans critiqued the war, arguing that African American men were more likely to be drafted and arguing that they should not have to fight abroad for a nation that denied them equal rights at home. Historian Simon Hall has noted a paradox: that African Americans were the group in America most critical of the war and yet largely absent from the antiwar movement, at least at a grassroots level. Nunn Bush Mens Wagner Oxford Black vcUiMaoL7R

Sources: Sprunger, Keith L. 1999. Mennonitism in print : EMU and the history of Dutch Mennonite printing . n.p.: [1999]., 1999. Menno Simons Historical Library Vertical File.

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A few years back, when I was a young PhD student, I went to one of my professors for advice. How could I turn some of my languishing seminar papers into publications? Particularly papers on Mennonites? My professor, himself a well-known historian of immigration and Jewish life, gave me this advice: when dealing with ethnic groups or subcultures you can emphasize difference from mainstream society or you can place them in the larger American story. He preferred the latter approach.

This advice percolated in my brain for a few years. It eventually helped me re-examine an earlier master’s thesis on Mennonite involvement in the antiwar movement during Vietnam. I had gone the route of emphasizing difference, rather than a story within a story, and in doing so I had missed something important– both about Mennonites and about the antiwar movement.

“Signs of the Times at EMC” (1969 EMC Shen)

The thesis title, “Doves of a Different Feather: Mennonites and the Antiwar Movement During Vietnam,” symbolizes my approach. To quote from the thesis intro (italics not in the original):

The church issues in the 1960s were complex. There was debate on the issues of war, peace, and church-state relationships, a debate that would surround those Mennonites who engaged in antiwar activities . These Mennonites did share characteristics of the larger antiwar movement but, at heart, they cannot be described as a microcosm of that group. Instead, they are best understood within the context of their specific religious community.

Mennonites were a part of the national antiwar movement but they were also a part of a specific ethno-religious community. Some embraced this community, some challenged it, but overall, Mennonite activists engaged with it. Their opposition to the war, therefore, was a form of speaking to the United States government but also to their own community . 1

Part of this thesis is fine. Mennonites who protested the Vietnam War did speak to both government and their own community. But this does not mean that Mennonites are best understood apart from the rest of the antiwar movement.

My thesis had focused on Eastern Mennonite College (now University) and Goshen College antiwar activity. I found examples of antiwar students who were hesitant to identify too closely with the larger antiwar movement. One EMC student wrote about attending a 1969 peace march in Washington, D.C. and explained that he felt “out of place” until the EMC group found other Mennonites at the rally. They linked arms, “mainly to let those who saw us know we had a unique reason for marching.” New Balance Mens P740WB US 13 USdSySO
Others showed similar sentiment discussing draft resistance. Some antiwar students supported those who refused to cooperate with the Selective Service System but hesitated about secular draft resisters and a praised Mennonite draft resisters as different. A Goshen College student compared draft resisters to a “tornado” while claiming conscientious objectors had “stable, religious grounds” for their refusal to participate in war. Another Goshen student also criticized non-Mennonite draft resisters, calling them “starry-eyed” and vague. However, he agreed with them on the “terrible injustice of war.” Calvin Klein Mens Gable Leather and Nylon Boot Black 95 M US s9y44B9

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Practical tools to trigger support socialinnovation

The Development Impact and You toolkit has been specially designed for practitioners to dive straight into action. Yet the tools presented here are grounded in existing theories and practices of innovation, design, and business development.

This section offers a ‘’ of the main pillars underlying the theory and management of social innovation and for each of these topics we have provided references for further reading.

Innovation is sometimes written about as an almost magical process. But it is wrong to see innovation as a mystery. It is true that innovation is rarely simple or predictable, but looking closely at what actually happens, it is also true that the overall innovation process is structured and systematic.

Although every real innovation is a complex story of loops and jumps, there are various stages that most innovations pass through.This framework is useful for understanding how to put ideas to work, and focusing on the different methods, and different mindset, needed at each stage.

The seven stages are:

: These include all the initiating factors like a crisis, new evidence, inspirations etc. which highlight the need for change. This might involve diagnosing the root causes of a problem, or identifying the opportunities that a new change could bring about.

: Most of the ideas you come up with at first won’t work. But it’s only through the process of constant idea creation that you arrive at something that is radical and transformative. Use creative methods like design to increase the number of solution options from a wide range of sources.

: New ideas are always helped by robust criticism. It is through trial and error that ideas are iterated and strengthened. This can be done by simply trying things out, or through more rigorous prototyping and randomised controlled trials.

: Before you try to implement your idea, you need to prove that it can work and is better than what is already there. Build up firm evidence to back it up and then share it honestly.

: This is when the solution becomes everyday practice. It includes identifying what is working well, and what is not, as well as securing income streams that enable the long term financial sustainability to carry the innovation forward.

: In this stage there are a range of strategies for growing and spreading an innovation – from organisational growth, to licensing and franchising.Emulation and inspiration also play a critical role in spreading an idea or practice in a more organic and adaptive manner.

Systemic innovation is where maximum social impact can be created. It usually involves changes in the public and private sector over long periods of time, and the interaction of many elements and new ways of thinking.

Have a plan for building evidence from the outset of your project. All innovators, commissioners, service users and investors need evidence to know whether the products or services they develop, buy or invest in make a positive difference. In fields such as medicine, using evidence is much more common and offers interesting opportunities to learn from. The main benefit of regular and systematic reviewing of evidence is that it enables a more effective way to use data or information to test assumptions, continually improve, and create a more sustained impact.

Using evidence as a natural part of projects and decision making should be common practice for organisations. And not just evidence on your current projects: understanding what has worked before, and awareness of what works in the wider landscape makes it easier to evaluate and replicate success. Below is a useful framework that Nesta has developed to show the different standards of evidence that you should aim to build up throughout a project to show that it is making a difference:

Level 1 :Account of impact: A clear buying tramadol in spain explanation of what the new or improved product or service does and how it could have impact on your intended outcome, and why that would be an improvement on the current situation.

Level 2 : Correlation: Observation of some positive impact happening on the part of the users of the product or service, but no confirmation yet on what caused this. You might conduct pre and post survey evaluations, or a cohort/panel study for instance.

Level 3 : Causation: Establishment of evidence of positive change amongst the users of the product or service due to the product or service. Think about how to isolate the impact of the product or service through a control group selected randomly to strengthen your evidence base.

Level 4 : Independent replication: Independent validation of the positive outcomes of the product or service, with the aim to deliver this positive impact at a reasonable cost in other places, such as commercial standards or industry kitemarks.

Level 5 : Scaled: Use methods like multiple replication evaluations or future scenario analysis to generate clear and tested evidence that the product or service can been delivered at multiple locations and delivers a strong, positive impact, whilst remaining a financially viable proposition.

The concept of scaling up is attracting increasing attention as it extends the reach of innovative pilot projects to large populations. There are many ways of scaling up – from repeating an idea in a different place, orcollaborating with different organisations and building relationships that work.

To determine if a project is ready to scale and achieve greater impact in a more widespread manner, it is important to find the things that work, get them to work smoothly and move them up to the next level. It is useful to think through effective demand and effective supply; i.e. is there someone out there who is willing to pay for your idea? And does your idea work, and does it work better than the alternatives? Nearly always the task of scaling a social idea involves increasing both effective supply and effective demand, but your strategy will vary greatly depending on which comes first.

From a distance great innovations may look like radical leaps. But from close up they often turn out to be made of small steps that build on each other to achieve bigger scale. Under a microscope the different stages of innovation might be magnified to show ‘mini-spiral’ processes taking place – individual projects that an organisation might be developing to support the overall innovation process.

The word ‘system’ refers to complex and interdependent infrastructures, rules and patterns in our societies and economies. Changes in one part may affect other parts, so complex issues require changes and innovations across the system.

Systems thinking brings together the different elements and innovations that achieve a common purpose. A single organisation almost never has all the skills and resources to provide the full range of activities that are needed to create a big impact. This means that an innovation resulting in systemic change almost always involves an alliance of partners, suppliers and distributors,supported by networks, clubs, think tanks and development agencies.

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